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اندوخته آموزشی تربیتی معلم زبان - کاربرد حرف تعریف the و a/an در زبان انگلیسی قسمت A
هدیه ی ناچیز تقدیم به علاقه مندان زبان انگلیسی به امید کسب این توفیق

2: The indefinite articles a and a are used in several different
ways in English. One use is with singular countable nouns
that are not specifically identified. Another important use is
in making generalizations:

A whale is a mammal.

An artichoke is a vegetable.

A clarinet is a woodwind instrument.

An awl is a tool used to punch holes.

A yard is a measure of length.

An orange is a citrus fruit.

In all of the sentences above, one of a large group of things
is used to refer to all of the items of the particular group.
(The first sentence, for example, can be understood in this
way: 'Any whale that you choose is a mammal.')

Special Notes:

1: Another way to make generalizations
is by using plural nouns:

Whales are mammals.

Artichokes are vegetables.

Clarinets are woodwind instruments.

Awls are tools used to punch holes.

Yards are measures of length.

Oranges are citrus fruits.

2: Generalizations may also be made with
uncountable nouns. With uncountable
nouns, however, there are no articles:

Gold is a precious metal.

Rice is a staple food in many countries.

Water is necessary for life on earth.

Butter is made from the fat in cream.

Venison is the meat of a deer.

Patience is a quality I admire.

Notice that in the examples above, the first
noun (gold, rice, water, butter, venison,
patience) is uncountable and is used to make
a generalization. In some of the example
sentences, the second noun is countable
and, therefore, uses an article: a precious
metal, a staple food, a quality.

 

 

The Definite Article The (1)

 

The definite article the is used in several different ways
in English.

One use is with nouns (singular or plural, countable or
uncountable) that are specifically identified because the
listener or reader knows (or can assume) that only one
specific noun is being talked or written about:

Are my keys in the car?

(The speaker / writer assumes that the
listener / reader knows which car is being
referred to.)

John can't hear you. He's in the shower.

(John can be in only one specific shower.)

Are the children asleep yet?

(The writer / speaker is referring to
specific children; the listener knows
which children he / she means.)

Evita's son is in the first grade.

(Evita's son can be in only one specific
first-grade class.)

He's not telling the truth.

(There is only one truth.)

Could you check the oil, please.?

(The speaker is asking someone to check
the oil in one specific car--probably the
he or she is driving.)

I'll see you the day after tomorrow.

(Only one specific day is after tomorrow.)

Is someone at the door?

(We can assume that only one specific
door is being referred to.)

Francisco is the tallest student in the class.

(Only one student can be the tallest.)

Is the coffee ready yet?

(A specific pot of coffee is being referred to,
not any pot of coffee.)

The stars are very bright tonight.

(Specific stars--the stars that we can see--
are being referred to.)

It's hard to believe that men have walked on the moon.

(In this sentence, the speaker / writer is
referring to one specific moon: the moon
that revolves around the earth.)

The banks are closed today.

(The speaker / writer assumes that the
listener / reader knows which banks are
being referred to--probably all the banks
in a specific city.)

 

The Definite Article The( 2)

The definite article the is used in several different ways
in English.

One use is with nouns (singular or plural, countable
or uncountable) that are specifically identified because
the listener or reader knows (or can assume) that only
one specific noun is being talked or written about.

Another use of the happens when a non-specific noun
is mentioned more than one time: the first time
the noun is mentioned, a or an is used (because at that
point the noun is non-specific). After the noun has been
mentioned the first time, however, the is used (because
at that point it's clear which noun is being referred to,
so it's specific).


Examples:

Tony bought a computer yesterday. He paid for
the computer with money he earned by working
after school.

*****

Yesterday there was an accident on the freeway.
The accident was caused by ice on the road.

*****

Two weeks ago, I bought some* milk. I opened
the milk today and found that it was sour.

*****

There will be a special meeting tomorrow morning.
The meeting will begin at 9:30 AM.

*****

Did you know that Elsa has a horse? She keeps
the horse at her uncle's farm.

*****

I heard that Samira had a baby. Do you know
the baby's name?

*****

Fred won some* money in the lottery. He'll use
the money to buy a car.

*****

Dave Sperling has two children, a boy and a girl.
The boy's name is Benjamin and the girl's name
is Shannon.

*****

Professor Vázquez received an honorarium for his
conference speech. The honorarium was $500.

*****

A friend of mine made an interesting website in 1995.
The website is called "Dave's ESL Cafe on the Web."


Special Note:

The indefinite articles a and an can be used only with
countable nouns; uncountable nouns use some or
a quantifier (for example, a lot of / a carton of /
a quart of / a bottle of).

The definite article the can be used with both countable
and uncountable nouns, however.

The Definite Article The (3)

The definite article the is used in several different ways
in English.

One use of the is with nouns (singular or plural, countable
or uncountable) that are specifically identified because the
listener or reader knows (or can assume) that only one
specific noun is being talked or written about.

Another use of the happens when a non-specific noun
is mentioned more than one time.

A third use is related to the second: when a plural noun
is non-specific, either some, a number or other quantifier,
or no article is used when the noun is mentioned the first
time, but the is used after the first time.


Examples:

Celina is wearing earrings. The earrings are small and
round and made of gold.

*****

Someone sent Anna flowers yesterday. The flowers
were delivered just before noon.

*****

George and Helen have three children. The children are
studying at universities in Missouri.

*****

I bought a pair of shoes yesterday. I couldn't resist
buying the shoes because they were on sale for half price.

*****

Betsy showed us some some photographs of Switzerland.
The photographs were taken on Betsy's vacation last year.

*****

Julia bought a skirt and some shoes. The skirt and the
shoes are both navy blue.

*****

She knew that we had questions about her report.
She asked us to send her the questions by e-mail.


Special Note:

Uncountable nouns can also be used in a way that is similar
to what was noted above:


There's water all over the kitchen floor! I think the water
is coming from the bottom of the refrigerator!

*****

I see a lot of smoke. Do you think the smoke is from
a forest fire?

*****

Fred bought several packages of graph paper. He'll use
the graph paper in his geometry class.

*****

I bought two quarts of ice cream. We'll have the ice cream
for dessert this evening.

*****

If your sauce is too thin, add one or two teaspoons of
cornstarch. The cornstarch will make the sauce thicker.

 

The Definite Article The (4)

We have seen that the definite article the is used when
nouns are specifically identified. Nouns can be specifically
identified in several different ways. One common way
is by using an adjective clause after the noun. In many
cases, the adjective clause makes the noun specific, so the
is used before it.

Examples:


Do you know the man who's talking to Julia?

(Only one man is talking to Julia.)

*****

Do you know the man who(m) Julia is talking to?

(Julia is talking to only one man.)

*****

I'm not sure that I like the soup that Fred made.

(Fred made only one kind of soup.)

*****

The person whose name is chosen will win a prize.

(Only one person's name will be chosen,
so only one person will win a prize.)

*****

The software that you bought doesn't work.

(You bought some software and it
doesn't work.)

*****

Hawai'i is the only U.S. state that was once a kingdom.

(No other U.S. states were once kingdoms;
only Hawai'i was.)

*****

That's the hospital where he was born.

(He was born in only one hospital: that one.)

*****

That's the hospital in which he was born.

(He was born in only one hospital: that one.)

*****

What do you think of the car that Carla bought?

(Carla bought only one car.)

*****

The car that Carla bought is a piece of junk!

(Carla bought only one car.)


Special Notes:

1: It's also possible to use non-specific nouns
in sentences like those above:

I know a man who works with Julia.

(More than one man works with Julia.
The sentence doesn't make it clear which
man is being referred to.)

*****

I met a man who(m) Julia works with.

(Julia works with more than one man.
The sentence doesn't make it clear which
man is being referred to.)

*****

Some of the software that you bought doesn't work.

(You bought software. Some of it works
and some of it doesn't work. The sentence
doesn't make it clear which software
doesn't work.)

*****

He lives in a state that shares borders with Arizona.

(Several states share borders with Arizona.
The sentence doesn't make it clear which
state is being referred to.)

*****

He was born in a hospital in Chicago, Illinois.

(Chicago has many hospitals. The sentence
doesn't make it clear which hospital is being
referred to.)

2: Some adjective clauses may be "abbreviated"
by deleting a relative pronoun + BE or by
deleting an object relative pronoun:

Do you know the man talking to Julia?
Do you know the man Julia is talking to?
I'm not sure that I like the soup Fred made.
What do you think of the car Carla bought?
The car Carla bought is a piece of junk!
I met a man Julia works with.
Some of the software you bought doesn't work.

+ نوشته شده در  جمعه بیست و چهارم دی 1389ساعت 16:28  توسط علی قادری |